Coronary angioplasty or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is not a surgery that is major. It is a treatment for repairing narrowed arteries. Our heart’s arteries can become clogged from a buildup of cholesterol, cells or other substances. Narrowed arteries can reduce blood circulation to your heart. Sometimes condition get worse and blood flow is totally obstructed. Angioplasty opens obstructed arteries and restores blood flow that is normal to our heart muscle.
PCI; Percutaneous coronary intervention; Balloon angioplasty; Coronary angioplasty; Coronary artery angioplasty; Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty; Heart artery dilatation
Why it is Performed
The 2 main reasons for Angioplasty are:
Angina (chest pain) – an individual may experience chest pain, or angina, during exercise or anxiety because one's heart's arteries are too slim to carry blood that has sufficient oxygen to satisfy the increased demand. In angina that is enduring that have not responded to standard medical remedies, and continue to have symptoms, angioplasty will undoubtedly be suggested.
Heart Attack – During a heart attack, an artery becomes completely blocked, cutting off oxygen and blood to the heart and causing the heart tissues to die. This is why cardiac arrest causes such severe pain. Reopening the artery straight away can minimize the quantity of heart tissue that is damaged during a heart attack. But this is not relevant for everyone after a heart attack.
Angioplasty will generally perhaps not be offered to people without symptoms (but who could have some obstruction in a artery that is coronary, and angioplasty to a number of coronary arteries ('multilevel angioplasty') is often not performed in diabetics.
Test & Diagnosis
Coronary angioplasty is performed in conjunction with coronary angiography and may be done on the spot when a diagnostic angiogram indicates a coronary artery blockage. But few days before angiogram scheduled, you have to go through some regular tests. These are:
- • Blood test
- • Chest X-Ray,
- • Electrocardiogram
How it is done
To open a clogged artery in heart your doctors inflate a tiny balloon and with a little puncture in a leg or arm artery. Medical practitioners insert a small tube (cather) into leg or arm artery. A very long wire that is slim threaded across the blockage. Over this cable, a catheter with a thin, expandable balloon in the end is passed to the blockage. The balloon is filled. It pushes plaque towards the edge and extends the artery open, so blood can flow more easily. Sometimes a small tube, a stent, is put into the artery to keep it open after angioplasty.
Coronary angioplasty is a common medical procedure. Serious complications don't occur often. However, they can happen no matter how careful your doctor is or how well he or she does the procedure.
Angioplasty complications can include:
- Discomfort and bleeding at the catheter insertion site
- Blood vessel damage from the catheters
- An allergic reaction to the dye used during the angioplasty
- An Arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat)
- Kidney damage caused by the dye used during the angioplasty.
- Stroke (less than 1 percent of people)
Life after Angioplasty
Most patients can return home the following day of angioplasty procedure. Patients can return to normal work after two or three days of the procedure, but are advised not to exercise vigorously or to lift heavy objects for the first few weeks after the procedure.
Changes will be made to patient’s medications and lifestyle following the procedure. These medications prevent forming blood clots, particularly in the treated part of the artery, because blood clots may cause a heart attack.
Lifestyle changes are most important after angioplasty as it does not cure CHD. It only help reduce some of the symptoms, but the disease can continue to damage the coronary arteries. These include stopping smoking, reducing weight, more exercise and a healthy diet.
Long-term prognosis of Angioplasty (Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) depends on the maintenance of the newly-opened coronary artery(ies). Thirty to fifty percent of patients with successful balloon angioplasty (no stent) may develop recurrent narrowing (restenosis) at the site of the balloon inflation, usually within six months following percutaneous coronary intervention. Restenosis occurs with a significantly higher frequency in people with diabetes. The widespread use of intracoronary stents has reduced the incidence of restenosis by as much as 50% or more; this is due to prevention of "elastic recoil" in the artery, as well as providing a larger initial channel in the treated artery. With the newer medicated stents, the restenosis rate is well under 10%.
Cost of the Angioplasty Surgery varies person to person and depends on the overall health condition of the patient and also choice of the healthcare facility and Hospital Room, however average price of the Angioplasty is around USD 2000- USD 4000 depending on the technique used, this is an all inclusive cost of surgery package.